Research and Publications


Our technologies are based on years of research. Below is the public list of research and publications that Luxmet has taken part.

We are continuously doing new research and looking for new opportunities in the field of hot metallurgical processes and optical emission spectrometry. Please feel free to contact our head of research Matti Aula with any research proposals.


 Aula M, Demus T, Echterhof T, Huttula M, Pfeifer H, Fabritius T (2015) On-line Analysis of Cr2O3 content of the slag in pilot scale EAF by measuring the optical emission spectrum of the electric arc. [Manuscript].

Aula M, Fabritius T, Fomkin V (2015) Measurement of Hot-spot Optical Emission Spectrum from Industrial Electric Arc Furnace Used in Making of Carbon Steel. Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on the Science and Technology of Steelmaking. The Chinese Society for Metals. Beijing. China

Aula M, Fabritius T, Pisilä S (2015) On-line analysis of process conditions in ilmenite smelting with optical emission spectrometry. Proceedings of EMC 2015. GDMB Verlag GmbH. Düsseldorf. Germany

Aula M, Leppänen A, Roininen J, Heikkinen E.-P, Vallo K, Fabritius T and Huttula M (2014) Characterization of Process Conditions in Industrial Stainless Steelmaking Electric Arc Furnace Using Optical Emission Spectrum Measurements. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B. 45B(6): 839–849.

Aula M, Mäkinen A, Fabritius T (2013) Analysis of arc emission spectra of stainless steel electric arc furnace slag affected by fluctuating arc voltage. Applied Spectroscopy. 68(1): 26–32

Aula M, Mäkinen A, Leppänen A, Huttula M, Fabritius T (2015) Optical emission analysis of slag surface conditions and furnace atmosphere during different process stages in electric arc furnace (EAF). ISIJ International. 55(8): 1702–170.

Aula M. (2016) Optical Emission from Electric Arc Furnaces. Oulu : University of Oulu, 2016

Hay T, Visuri V, Aula M (2020) A review of mathematical process models for the electric arc furnace process, Steel Research International (2020) p. 1-22.

Pauna H (2020) Electric arc characterisation and furnace process monitoring with optical emission spectroscopy and image analysis. Oulu : University of Oulu, 2020

Pisilä S, Palovaara P, de Jong A, Aula M (2015) Ilmenite Smelting in a Pilot Scale DC Furnace. Proceeding of the Fourteenth International Ferroalloys Congress. Kiev. Ukraine.

Jokinen Mikko, Aula Matti, Vallo Kimmo, Porter William. (2017) Optical Emission Spectrometry of the Arcs During Melting in the EAF. AISTech Conference


Rontti E, (2019) Optimization of electric arc furnace injectors based on optical emission spectrum measurements. Oulu : E. Rontti, 2019

Veijola T, (2018) Improving the control of electric arc furnace by combining optical emissions with process data. Oulu : T. Veijola, 2018

Research Partners and Projects

AMET -Project