Electrode consumption forms a large part of the operational costs of EAF steelmaking. In addition, electrode prices have been very volatile during recent years. Therefore, it is important to understand what causes the consumption of electrodes and how it could be...
It is not exactly a secret that melting steel with an electric arc requires massive amounts of energy. Typical production volumes start from a hundred thousand tons per year and reach over one million tons annually. It is obvious that the electricity bills are...
A sustainable circular economy means that the society aims to reduce the burden of nature by making sure that the resources remain in use for as long as possible. The role of steel in the circular economy is considered as it is a permanent material. Steel is used in...
There is a clear trend that the European steel industry is changing from the BF-BOF route to EAF based steelmaking to reduce its direct and indirect CO2 emissions. The target is to cut CO2 emissions by 80-95% in 2050 compared to 1990 levels. This transformation causes...
After the optimization and the transition stage, the last stage is seen to be the green end stage where steel can be produced at or near-zero emissions. Currently, the steel industry is still in the optimization stage, but steps have already been taken towards the...
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